Work Practices Mediated By Motivation Enhancing Productivity and Performance of Airports Post-Privatization – An Empirical Evidence




Work Design, Digitization, Flexibility, Effectiveness, Efficiency, Quality


Purpose: Airport privatisation is rapidly gaining ground, leading to a significant increase in research interest. Amid rapid airport privatisation, Indian airports offer a unique lens to study the impact of work practices on productivity and performance mediated by motivation.


Theoretical Framework: The study draws upon relevant theories including high-performance work systems (HPWS) and motivation theories impacting productivity and performance.


Method: This study investigates the detailed thematic analysis and self-administered surveys (Likert scale) collected from 50 professionals in 9 major Public-Private Partnership (PPP or 3Ps) airports in India on various aspects of work practices which includes work design, digitisation, and flexibility, with motivation mediating productivity and performance including effectiveness, efficiency, and quality outcomes. Their reliability and validity were analysed using Cronbach's alpha, Pearson correlation, and Mediating analysis using Process 4.2. Purposive sampling is employed in this study.


Result: The study finds a positive impact of work practices on employee productivity and performance through motivation. Importantly, it reveals motivation as a key mediator, offering valuable insights for aviation professionals. The analysis confirms model accuracy by representing strong prediction and regression value alignment.


Download data is not yet available.


Abhilash S Nair. (2021). Regulatory Pricing Mechanism in the Context Privatization of Delhi and Mumbai Airports: Double Down or Pivot - Case Study, Indian Institute of Management Kozhikode/CS/141/FIN/2021/07.

Abidin, J., Makkie, N. M. P., & Kusuma, P. (2022). The Effect of Job Satisfaction and Work Motivation on Employee Performance in Terminal Operations at Bandung Husein Sastranegara Airport. AURELIA. Aurelia Verlag, 1(2), 266–270.

Abu-Bader, S., & Jones, T. V. (2021). Statistical mediation analysis using the Sobel test and Hayes SPSS process macro. In International Journal of Quantitative and Qualitative Research Methods, 9(1).

Adani airports investors presentation. (2022). Adani airports report.

Afifa, I. T., She, Y., Dharasta, M. A., Tasya, I., & Parangtritis, A. J. Km, N. Sewon, K, and Bantul, K. (2023). The influence of motivation and work environment on employee performance at Batam’s Hang Nadim International airport.

Al Aina, R., & Atan, T. (2020). The Impact of Implementing Talent Management Practices on Sustainable Organizational Performance. Sustainability (Switzerland), 12(20), 1–21.

Al Doghan, M. A., Channa, A., Abdelwahed, N. A. A., & Soomro, B. A. (2023). Entrepreneurial leadership and enterprise performance: A way out of sustainability. Journal of Law and Sustainable Development, 11(12), e2093.

Al Doghan, M. A., Channa, A., Abdelwahed, N. A. A., & Soomro, B. A. (2023). The predictive power of human resource practices in developing social entrepreneurship performance and sustainable business. Journal of Law and Sustainable Development, 11(12), e2206.

Al Maalouf, N. J., & El Achi, S. E. (2023). Project management and team performance: An applied transformational leadership perspective. Journal of Law and Sustainable Development, 11(12), e1830.

Albalate, D., Bel, G., & Fageda, X. (2014). Beyond pure public and pure private management models: Partial privatization in the European Airport Industry. In International Public Management Journal, 17(3), 308–327.

Ali, H., Pham, D. T., Alam, S., & Schultz, M. (2022). A deep reinforcement learning approach for airport departure metering under spatial-temporal airside interactions. IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, 23(12), 23933–23950.

Al-Shami, S. A., Alsuwaidi, A. K. M. S., & Akmal, S. (2022). The effect of entrepreneurial orientation on innovation performance in the airport industry through learning orientation and strategic alignment. Cogent Business and Management, 9(1).

Amadeus. (2018). A business, financial and sustainability overview.

Andres, A., Biller, D., Blades, C., Bloomgarden, D. R., Bright, D., Cabrera Escalante, M., Calvo, J., Carboni, G., Casabianca, B. A., Chaudry, O., Donchev, D., Fay, M., Farole, T., Hallward-Driemeier, M. C., Mitchelitsch, R., Schwartz, J., Ward, T. R., & Yamamoto, C. (2016). The economic impact of public–private partnerships in the infrastructure sector: Literature review.

Andrew, S., Joe, Alejandro, Josh, Bonnie, & Sam. (2022). Road map to automated mobility systems: Informing the planning of a sustainable, resilient transportation ecosystem for Dallas/Fort Worth international airport.

Apak, S., Gümüş, S., Öner, G., & Gümüş, H. G. (2016). Performance appraisal and a field study. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 229, 104–114.

Assunta V, & Luisa V. (2020). Blockchain technology in supply chain management for sustainable performance: Evidence from the airport industry. International Journal of Information Management, 52.

Awaken Group. (2023). Leadership transformation and capability building at Changi Airports International.

Baik, K., Kim, K. Y., & Patel, P. C. (2019). The internal ecosystem of high-performance work system and employee service-providing capability: A contingency approach for servitizing firms. Journal of Business Research, 104, 402–410.

Baker. (2019). How can AI help speed up airport security?

Balakrishnan, Masthan, & Chandra. (2013). Employee retention through employee engagement-A study at an Indian international airport. In International Journal of Business and Management Invention ISSN, 2.

Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory of aggression. Journal of Communication, 28(3), 12-29.

Bartulović, D., & Steiner, S. (2023). Predictive Analysis of Airport Safety Performance: Case Study of Split Airport. Aerospace, 10(3).

Bettini, H. F. A. J., & Oliveira, A. V. M. (2016). Two-sided platforms in airport privatization. Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, 93, 262–278.

Bezerra, G. C. L., & Gomes, C. F. (2018). Performance measurement practices in airports: Multidimensionality and utilization patterns. Journal of Air Transport Management, 70, 113–125.

Blasius, Anita, & Yudhi. (2022). The effect of training, career development, empowerment and work discipline on job satisfaction at Class I airport operator unit of Mopah Merauke. Budapest International Research and critics institute-journal (BIRCI-journal), e-ISSN. p-ISSN, 2615–1715, 5(1), 1832–1845 (pp. 2615–3076) [Online].

Boxall, P., & Macky, K. (2009). Research and theory on high-performance work systems: Progressing the high-involvement stream. In Human Resource Management Journal, 19(1), 3–23.

Brown, R. A., Yeung, D., Carew, D. G., & O’Connor, K. (2020). National defense Research Institute (U.S.). Rand Corporation., & United States. Department of Defense. Office of the Secretary of Defense. Corporate knowledge for government decision-makers: insights on screening, vetting, and monitoring processes. [Book].

Caldwell, C., & Floyd, L. (2014). High performance work systems building commitment to increase profitability seven practices of high performance work systems (HPWS). Graziadio Business Review, 17 (3).

Chakraborty, S., Ghosh, S., Sarker, B., & Chakraborty, S. (2020). An integrated performance evaluation approach for the Indian international airports. Journal of Air Transport Management, 88.

Chourasia, A. S., Jha, K., & Dalei, N. N. (2021). Development and planning of sustainable airports. Journal of Public Affairs, 21(1).

Cochin International Airport Limited—Center for International and European Law on Migration and Asylum, & Association of Private Airport Operators. (2021, March 4). Association of private airport operators |. https.

D.P. Singh, T. Bangar Raju, & Narendra N. Dalei. (2016). Impact Assessment of Airport Economic Regulation and Privatization on Indian Airports’ Performance. University of Petroleum and Energy Studies Deharadun.

Di Vaio, A., & Varriale, L. (2020). Blockchain technology in supply chain management for sustainable performance: Evidence from the airport industry. International Journal of Information Management, 52.

Di Vaio, A., & Varriale, L. (2020). SDGs and airport sustainable performance: Evidence from Italy on organisational, accounting and reporting practices through financial and non-financial disclosure. Journal of Cleaner Production, 249.

DiazGranados, D., Woods, J. J., Wilder, A., & Curtis, M. T. (2023), Chapter 8. Team dynamics in the air: A review of team research relevant to aviation. In J. R. Keebler, E. H. Lazzara, K. A. Wilson & E. L. Blickensderfer (Eds.), Human factors in aviation and aerospace (3rd ed) (pp. 199–215). Academic Press, ISBN 9780124201392.

Dubey, R. (2016). Case B (Sequel) – GMR: Deciding future alliance strategy for airports. Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies, 6(1), 1–25.

Durmaz, V., Yazgan, E., & Kucuk Yılmaz, A. (2021). Ergonomic risk factors in ground handling operations to improve corporate performance. International Journal of Aviation Science and Technology, vm02(), 82–90., 82–90. (), 82–90.

Eid, A., Salah, M., Barakat, M., & Obrecht, M. (2022). Airport sustainability awareness: A theoretical framework. Sustainability, 14(19), 11921.

European Commission for Africa. (2014). Inspiring aviation. The power of engagement and positive leadership in driving resilience Positive Organizational Culture in Aviation [Report].

Farid Mampawa, Hasmin Tamsah, Baharudin, B., & Umar Syarifuddin. (2022). Leadership Style and Organizational Culture on Employee Performance through Motivation in PT. Angkasa Pura 1 Unit Airport Rescue and Fire Fighting Sultan Hasanuddin Maros International Airport. In Rahman, Gunawan, & Muhamad Chairul Basrun Umanailo (Eds.), Proceedings of the First Australian International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Operations Management, Sydney, Australia, December (pp. 20–22). IEOM Society International.

Fasone, V., Maggiore, P., & Scuderi, R. (2014). Airport ownership and financial performance: Evidence from Italy. Journal of Air Transport Management, 40, 163–168.

Fragoudaki, A., & Giokas, D. (2020). Airport efficiency in the dawn of privatization: The case of Greece. Journal of Air Transport Management, 86.

George C.L. Bezerra, Carlos F. Gomes (2018) Performance measurement practices in airports: Multidimensionality and utilization patterns, Journal of Air Transport Management, Volume 70, Pages 113-125, ISSN 0969-6997,

George, M. (2015a). Airport privatization-international organizations and emerging issues. In issues in the air. Law and Policy, 14(2).

George, M. (2015b). Chapter 2. Airport privatization-international organizations and emerging issues. In Issues in air, Law and policy, 14 p. 2.

George, M. (2016). Legal implications of airport privatization in India. In issues in the air. Law and Policy, 12(1).

Graham Francis, Jackie Fry, & Ian Humphreys. (2002). International Survey of Performance Measurement in Airports. Transportation Research Record, 1788(1), 101–103.

Graham, P. A. (2020). Airport privatisation: A successful journey? Journal of Air Transport Management, 89, 101930.

Güner, S., Cebeci, H. İ., Antunes, J. J. M., & Wanke, P. F. (2021). Sustainable efficiency drivers in Eurasian airports: Fuzzy NDEA approach based on Shannon’s entropy. Journal of Air Transport Management, 92.

Guthrie, J. P. (2001). High-involvement work practices, turnover, and productivity: Evidence from New Zealand. Academy of Management Journal, 44(1), 180–190.

Hair JF, Black WC, Babin BJ, Anderson RE. Multivariate Data Analysis [Internet]. Eighth Edition. Annabel Ainscow; 2019. Available from:

Hayes, A. F., & Preacher, K. J. (2014). Statistical mediation analysis with a multi categorical independent variable. British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology, 67(3), 451–470.

Hayes, A. F., & Rockwood, N. J. (2017). Regression-based statistical mediation and moderation analysis in clinical research: Observations, recommendations, and implementation. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 98, 39–57., S. A. (2022). The future of airport workforce. Airports Council International report.

Iis, E. Y., Roni, M., & Sulaiman. (2023). Knowledge Management and Organizational Commitment on Employees Performance at PT. Bank Aceh Syariah Takengon: A Moderating Effect of Talent Management. Journal of Law and Sustainable Development, 11(12), e1608.

International Civil Aviation Organization. (2016). Economics of airports and air navigation services-policy Assessment of the Airport PPP Experience in India [Report].

Joseph Tawk, C. (2021). Effects of high-performance work practices (HPWPs) on employee performance: A review article. Journal of Human Resource and Sustainability Studies, 09(3), 397–412.

Khalid K.Alharbi. (2018). Universiti Putra Malaysia Direct and Indirect Effects of Leadership Styles on Employee Commitment and Performance in Saudi Airlines. Putra Business School, Malaysia. [Thesis].

Kirschenbaum, A. (A.). (2015). The social foundations of airport security. Journal of Air Transport Management, 48, 34–41, ISSN 0969-6997.

Kortmann, S., Gelhard, C., Zimmermann, C., & Piller, F. T. (2014). Linking strategic flexibility and operational efficiency: The mediating role of ambidextrous operational capabilities. Journal of Operations Management, 32(7–8), 475–490.

Krishnan, L. R. K. (2021). Privatisation of Commercial Airports in India: Carry over Legacy, a Nightmare Managing the People Agenda. Journal of the International Academy for Case Studies, Case Reports: 2021 Vol: 27 Issue: 4.

Kumar, A., Dash, M. K., & Sahu, R. (2018). Performance Efficiency Measurement of Airports. International Journal of Strategic Decision Sciences, 9(2), 19–37.

Kurniawan, D. T., Sopiah, L. J., Hariri, A., & Prohimi, M. S. S. (2021). Analysis of HR management and organizational support in maintaining employee well-being and performance when working from home during COVID-19, KnE social sciences (knowledge E)-p.p. 300–312-300–312.

Locke, E., & Latham, G. (2015). Goal-setting theory. In Organizational behavior 1 (pp. 159–183). Routledge.

Martin, S., & Parker, D. (1995). Privatization and economic performance throughout the UK business cycle. Managerial and Decision Economics, 16(3), 225–237.

MIAL. (2020). Sustainability Report 2020 - Mumbai International Airport Ltd.

Mkubwa, & Lyimo. (2019). Impact of motivation on the employee performance, A case study of Zanzibar airports authority. Olva academy- school of researchers, 2(3).

Muhammad Habib Al-Furqon, & Andi Syaputra. (2023). The Effect of Work Discipline and Motivation on Employee Performance at the Airport Operation Landside and Terminal Unit at I Gusti Ngurah Rai International Airport Bali. JETISH: Journal of Education Technology Information Social Sciences and Health E-ISSN.

Mukaka, M. M. (2012). Statistics Corner: A guide to appropriate use of correlation coefficient in medical research. In Malawi Medical Journal, 24(3).

Narendra, S. (2016). Improving the operational performance efficiency index of an airport by managing and reducing controllable delays: A case study of Delhi International Airport Limited, India. Journal of Airport Management, Henry Stewart Publications, vol. 10(4), pages 359-380, October.

Nile, & Galal. (2022). JCES_Volume 13_Issue 2_Pages 971-1012. Journal of Contemporary European Studies Aims & Scope, 13(2), 971–1012.

Niti Aayog. (2019). New Approaches to PPP focusing on the Airport Sector, CRISIL Infrastructure Advisory, Gurgaon.

Ohri, M. (2006). Airport privatization in India Airport privatization in India- A study of different modes of infrastructure provision. [Discussion paper].

Ohri, Manuj. (2012). Discussion paper: Airport privatization in India. Networks and Spatial Economics, 12(2), 279–297.

Paraschi, E. P., & Georgopoulos, A. (2020). Austerity HRM practices, work deterioration and possible recovery policies: A cross-European survey in the airport Workplace. Economic and Industrial Democracy, 41(4), 860–886.

Paraschi, E. P., Georgopoulos, A., & Papanikou, M. (2022). Safety and security implications of crisis-driven austerity HRM practices in commercial aviation: A structural equation modelling approach. Safety Science, 147, 105570–.

Prasad Bastola, D. (2020). The relationship between leadership styles and aviation safety: A study of aviation industry. In Journal of Air Transport Studies, 11(1).

Pratikno, Y., Arief Rachman Hakim, M., Harahap, V., Henokh Parmenas, N., Widodo, S., Supriyadi, I., Kamar, K., Natarida Marpaung, N., Tinggi Manajemen, I. M. M. I., & S. (2022). The effect of organizational culture and motivation on the performance of Class I Soekarno Hatta Port Health Office Employees at Terminal 3 Soekarno Hatta Airport.

Preacher, K. J., & Hayes, A. F. (2004). SPSS and SAS procedures for estimating indirect effects in simple mediation models. In Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, and Computers, 36(4)., 717–731.

Radu, C. (2023). Fostering a Positive Work Culture: Impacts on Performance and Agility.

Roelen, A., & Blom, H. A. P. (2013). Modelling and Managing Airport Performance - Airport Safety Performance. [Chapter 7]. (First; Konstantinos G. Zografos, Giovanni Andreatta, & Amedeo R. Odoni, Eds.). John Wiley & Sons. Ltd.

Rolim, P. S. W., Bettini, H. F. A. J., & Oliveira, A. V. M. (2016). Estimating the impact of airport privatization on airline demand: A regression-based event study. Journal of Air Transport Management, 54, 31–41.

Romero, J., Lafont, J., Tafur, J., & Eguren, S. (2016). Performance and value creation at United Kingdom’s airports using fsQCA. Journal of Business Research, 69(4), 1442–1445.

Roza Linda, M., Leni, P., Trismiyanti, D., & Perdagangan, S. (2018). The Effect of Work Motivation Dimension on the Performance of Employees of PT. Gapura Angkasa of Minangkabau International Airport Padang. Advances in Economics, Business and Management Research, Volume 57, 1st International Conference on Economic Education, Economics, Business and Management, Accounting and Entrepreneurship (PICEEBA 2018).

Sabrina Howell, J., Kim, & Weisbach. (2022). All clear for takeoff: Evidence from airports on the effects of infrastructure privatization. NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC (NBER) Working Paper Series.

Sambrani, V. N. (2014). PPP from Asia and African perspective towards infrastructure development: A case study of greenfield Bangalore International airport, India. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 157, 285–295.

Sawmy, S, & Krishnan, L.R.K. (2023). Privatization of Indian airports – Current trends impacting the people dimension of business. International Journal of Research in Commerce. It & Management, VOLUME NO. 13 (1).

Sawmya, S, & Krishnan, L. R. K. (2023). A conceptual review on privatization of Indian airports-a new dimension in people management explored. In Journal of the International Academy for Case Studies, 29(3).

Sebastiampillai, S., & Holm, V. U. (2017). The effect of HR practices on employee and customer satisfaction – A study of an airport infrastructure manager. Industrial economics and technology management. [Diploma] project work. Publisher NTNU.

See, K. F., & Li, F. (2015). Total factor productivity analysis of the UK airport industry: A Hicks-Moorsteen index method. Journal of Air Transport Management, 43, 1–10.

Sever, H. (2023). A demographic research on compassion fatigue and job satisfaction levels of aviation employees. Journal of Aviation, 7(1), 29–38.

Singh, K., Saluja, M. R., Tanwar, Y. K., Bandyopadhyay, S., Baruah, P., & Joshi, T. (2017). NCAER economic-impact-of-the-IGIA-Delhi-Final-1. In 2017.

Singh. Bangar, and Raju. (2016). Impact assessment of airport economic regulation and privatisation on Indian airports’ performance. [Thesis].

Sutia, S., & Sudarma, M. (2013). The influence of human capital investment, leadership and strategic orientation on airport performance. International Journal of Business and Management Invention ISSN, 2. p. 26|Page. In.

Tajunnisa, S., Kee, D. M. H., Alyafi- AlZahri, R., Alsanie, G., & BinSaeed, R. (2023). Corporate sustainability and vision 2030: Exploring ARAMCO’s role in promoting social responsibility for sustainability. Journal of Law and Sustainable Development, 11(12), e1408.

Toledo, F. S., Falcão, V. A., Camioto, F. de C., & da Silva, P. A. L. (2021). Does privatization make Brazilian airports more efficient? TRANSPORTES, 29(2).

Valeri, L., & VanderWeele, T. J. (2013). Mediation analysis allowing for exposure-mediator interactions and causal interpretation: Theoretical assumptions and implementation with SAS and SPSS macros. Psychological Methods, 18(2), 137–150.

Vasigh, B., Erfani, G. R., & Sherman, B. W. (2014). Airport performance and ownership structure: Evidence from the United Kingdom, United States, and Latin America. Journal of Aviation Technology and Engineering, 4(1).

Wang, L., Xue, X., Zhao, Z., & Wang, Z. (2018). The impacts of transportation infrastructure on sustainable development: Emerging trends and challenges. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 15(6).

Young, S. B., Price, M., & National Research Council (U.S.). (2013). Airport leadership development program. Federal Aviation Administration. Transportation Research Board. Airport Cooperative Research Program, Ohio State University. Center for Aviation Studies, Direct Effect Solutions, Inc. Columbus Regional Airport Authority., & Howard, N. Transportation Research Board.

Zakrzewski, D. M. (2009). Perceptions of privatisation and corporate performance: A study of Sydney Airport stakeholders. A thesis presented to the University of Western Sydney. Australia.

Zhu, W. (2016). p < .05, < 0.01, < 0.001, < 0.0001, < 0.00001, < 0.000001, or < 0.0000001. . . . Journal of Sport and Health Science, 5(1), 77–79.




How to Cite

Shanmuganathan , S., & LRK.Krishnan. (2024). Work Practices Mediated By Motivation Enhancing Productivity and Performance of Airports Post-Privatization – An Empirical Evidence. Revista De Gestão Social E Ambiental, 18(9), e6457.